Anyone who has snorkelled on holiday knows how complex air bubble motion is in the real world. There is an abundance of complex fluid dynamics going on in this 2-phase flow, representing major challenges in fluid simulation. But, by modeling the force phenomena in the ambient fluid (water) we've been able to simulate highly realistic bubble motions.

The results include not only basic oscillatory, buoyant shapes but also increased rates of rise with bubble size, and transitions to turbulent wakes to generate ripped-off bubble in trailing zones.

[ Close-up on single bubble]

[ Large population of bubbles interacting with geometry ]